The classification and basic working principle of pick and place machine
In the past 30 years, the placement machine has been developed from the early low speed (1 ~ 1.5S / piece) and low precision (mechanical alignment) to high speed (0.08S / piece) and high precision / (optical alignment, ±60) high-precision automatic placement machine is a computer / optical / precision machinery / ball screw / linear guide / linear point machine / harmonic driver and vacuum system and a variety of sensors constitute the integration of mechanical and electrical high-tech equipment , In a sense, placement machine technology has become an important pillar of SMT and in-depth development of the important signs, placement machine is the SMT production of the most critical and most complex equipment, but also people in the initial establishment of SMT production line is the most difficult Select the device.
At present, the world has nearly dozens of placement machine manufacturers, the production of hundreds of pieces of the machine as many as the placement of the machine is not a fixed format, the habit of the following several.
1.1, according to the loading speed classification
Medium speed patch: 3000 / H <placement speed <9000 / H
High-speed placement machine: 9000 pieces / H <placement speed <40000 pieces / H
Overspeed placement machine: placement speed> 40000 pieces / H
1.2, by function classification
At present, these two types of placement machine iron is divided into two categories: one is high-speed / ultra-high-speed placement machine, mainly iron-based components as the main body; another type of large devices and external devices For multi-function machine.
1.3, according to the assembly frame structure classification
Arch type / turret type / large scale parallel system
2, the basic working principle of the placement machine
2.1 arch type:
The component feeder (PCB) is fixed, and the patch head (with multiple vacuum suction nozzles) moves back and forth between the feeder and the substrate, removing the assembly from the feeder, adjusting the position and orientation of the component, and then Placed on the substrate. As the patch head is mounted on the arch-type X / Y coordinate moving beam, so named.
2.1.1 arch type of action principle:
Adjustment of component position and direction:
1) the mechanical alignment of the adjustment position / nozzle rotation adjustment direction, this method can achieve the accuracy is limited;
2) Laser recognition / X / Y coordinate system adjustment position / nozzle rotation adjustment direction, this method can be achieved during flight identification, but can not be used for ball grid array components BGA;
3) camera recognition / X / Y coordinate system adjustment position / nozzle rotation adjustment direction, the general camera fixed, patch head flying across the camera, imaging recognition, than laser recognition delay a little time, can identify any components, but also To achieve the identification of the flight process of the camera recognition system, mechanical structure and other sacrifices.
2.1.2 Disadvantages of arch type:
This form is limited because the patch head moves back and forth long distances. Now generally use a number of vacuum suction mouth at the same time take the material (up to the top ten) and the use of double-beam system to improve the speed, that is, a beam on the patch head while taking the other, the beam on the patch Components, the speed is almost double the single-beam system.But the actual application, while the conditions of reclaiming more difficult to achieve, and different types of components need to use a different vacuum suction nozzle, The
2.1.3 Advantages of arch type:
The advantages of this type of model is: the system structure is simple, can achieve high precision (shaft beam position and movement can control the component placement accuracy to SOpimfO.OSmm) the following), suitable for all kinds of large shape of the components, , Feeder with ribbon / tube / tray form, suitable for small and medium production, but also more than one machine for high-volume production SMT production representative models: SONY HITACHI and so on.
2.2 turret type
The component feeder is placed on a moving vehicle with a single coordinate movement. The substrate (PCB) is placed on a table moving on an X / Y coordinate system. The patch head is mounted on a turret. When working, the feeder feeds the component feeder Move to the reclaiming position, the vacuum suction nozzle on the patch head in the take-up position to take the components, the turret to the patch position (with the material position 180 degrees), in the process of rotation through the component position and direction Adjust the components on the substrate.
2.2.1 turret type of action principle
Adjustment of component position and direction:
1) mechanical alignment position / nozzle rotation adjustment direction, this method can achieve the accuracy is limited, the late models are no longer used;
2) camera recognition / X / Y coordinate system to adjust the position, the nozzle from the rotation to adjust the direction of the camera fixed, patch head flying across the camera, imaging recognition.
2.2.2 Disadvantages of turret type:
Can only be mounted tape packaging components, if it is dense feet / large integrated circuit (1C), only the tray packaging, it can not be completed, and therefore depends on other models to work together, this device structure is complex, expensive, The latest models about RMB500 million, is more than three times the arch type SMT production model: Panasonic YAMAHA and so on.
2.2.3 Advantages of turret type:
In general, the turret installed on a dozen to twenty patch head, each patch head to install 2 to 4 vacuum nozzle (earlier models) to 5 to 6 vacuum nozzle (now models). Due to the characteristics of the turret, the action will be subtle, select the nozzle / feeder to move in place / take the component / component identification / angle adjustment / table movement (including position adjustment) / placement components and other actions can be in the same time period Finished, so to achieve the true sense of the high speed. The fastest time period to reach 0.08 ~ 0.10 seconds a piece of components.